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Baseball Glossary

Abbreviations
For Batters:
GGames
ABAt-Bats
HHits
2BDoubles
3BTriples
HRHome Runs
HmHome Runs at Home
RdHome Runs on the Road
TBTotal Bases
RRuns
RBIRuns Batted In
TBBTotal Bases on Balls
IBBIntentional Bases on Ball
SOStrikeouts
HBPTimes Hit by Pitches
SHSacrifice Hits
SFSacrifice Flies
SBStolen Bases
CSTimes Caught Stealing
SB%Stolen Base Percentage
GDPTimes Grounded into Double Plays
AvgBatting Average
OBPOn-Base Percentage
SLGSlugging Percentage
BBWalks
PAPlate Appearances
RATRatio of AB/HR
RCRuns Created (see
RC/27Runs Created per 27 outs
HtHeight
WtWeight
YrYear
LgMinor League Level
POSPosition
GBNumber of Fair Ground Balls Hit (hits, outs and errors)
FBNumber of Fly Balls Hit (excludes line drives)
G/FRatio of Grounders to Fly Balls
BFPBatters Facing Pitchers
#PitNumber of Pitches Offered to the Hitter
#P/PAAverage Number of Pitches per Plate Appearance
*Bats Left-handed
#Switch Hitter
For Pitchers:
GGames Pitched
GSGames Started
CGComplete Games
GFGames Finished
IPInnings Pitched
BFPBatters Facing Pitcher
HHits Allowed
RRuns Allowed
EREarned Runs Allowed
HRHome Runs Allowed
SHSacrifice Hits Allowed
SFSacrifice Flies Allowed
HBHit Batsmen
TBBTotal Bases on Balls
IBBIntentional Bases on Ball
SOStrikeouts
WPWild Pitches
SupRun Support per Nine Innings
IRInherited Runners
IRSInherited Runners who Scored
QSQuality Starts
SvOpSave Opportunities
GBGroundballs Hit Against the Pitcher (hits, outs and errors)
FBFly Balls Hit Against the Pitcher (excludes line drives)
GFRatio of Grounders to Flies
BkBalks
WWins
LLosses
Pct.Winning Percentage
ShOShutouts
SvSaves
ERAEarned Run Average
BBWalks Issued
AvgBatting Average Allowed by Pitcher
RATRatio of SO/AB
WHIPWalks + Hits / Innings Pitched
HtHeight
WtWeight
POSPosition
YrYear
LgMinor League Level
*Throws Left-handed
For Fielders:
GNumber of Games at Position
GSNumber of Starts
InningsNumber of Innings at Position
POPutouts
AAssists
EErrors
DPDouble Plays Turned
Fld.PctFielding Percentage
Rng.FctrRange Factor
In ZoneBalls Hit in the Player's Area
OutsNumber of Outs Resulting from a Ball Hit to a Player
Zone RtgZone Rating (see Definitions)
MLB ZoneMajor League Average Zone Rating for that Position
Definitions of Baseball Terms
% Inherited Scored A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score.
1st Batter OBP The On-Base Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game.
Active Career Batting Leaders Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, On-Base Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio. One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category's minimum requirements.
Active Career Pitching Leaders Minimum of 750 Innings Pitched required for Earned Run Average, Opponent Batting Average, all of the Per 9 Innings categories, and Strikeout to Walk Ratio. Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency. One hundred (100) decisions required for Win-Loss Percentage. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category's minimum requirements.
BA ScPos Allowed Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position.
Baserunners per Nine Innings These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings.
Bases Loaded This category shows a player's batting average in bases loaded situation.
Batting Average Hits divided by At Bats.
Bequeathed Runners Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below).
Blown Saves This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead.
Catcher's ERA The Earned Run Average of a club's pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate. To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught.
Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores First determine the starting pitcher's Game Score as follows:
  1. Start with 50.
  2. Add 1 point for each out recorded by the starting pitcher.
  3. Add 2 points for each inning the pitcher completes after the fourth inning.
  4. Add 1 point for each strikeout.
  5. Subtract 2 points for each hit allowed.
  6. Subtract 4 points for each earned run allowed.
  7. Subtract 2 points for an unearned run.
  8. Subtract 1 point for each walk.
If the starting pitcher scores over 50 and loses, it's a Tough Loss. If he wins with a game score under 50, it's a Cheap Win.
Cleanup Slugging% The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order.
Clutch This category shows a player's batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck.
Complete Game Frequency Complete Games divided by Games Started.
Defensive Batting Average A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average. The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst.
Earned Run Average (Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched.
Fast-A Otherwise known as "Advanced A," these A-level minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League.
Favorite Toy

The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player's chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we'll say 3,000 hits.

Four things are considered:

  1. Need Hits - the number of hits needed to reach the goal. (This, of course, could also be "Need Home Runs" or "Need Doubles" - Whatever.)
  2. Years Remaining. The number of years remaining to meet the goal is estimated by the formula 24- .6(age). This formula assigns a 20-year-old player 12.0 remaining seasons, a 25-year-old player 9.0 remaining seasons, a 30-year-old player 6.0 remaining seasons, a 35-year-old player 3.0 remaining seasons. Any player who is still playing regularly is assumed to have at least 1.5 seasons remaining, regardless of his age.
  3. Established Hit Level. For 1996, the established hit level would be found by adding 1993 hits, two times 1994 hits, and three times 1995 hits, and dividing by six. However, a player cannot have an established performance level that is less than three-fourths of his most recent performance—that is, a player who had 200 hits in 1995 cannot have an established hit level below 150.
  4. Projected Remaining Hits. This is found by multiplying the second number (ears remaining) by the third (established hit level).

Once you get the projected remaining hits, the chance of getting to the goal is figured by (projected remaining hits) divided by (need hits), minus .5. By this method, if your "need hits" and your "projected remaining hits" are the same, your chance of reaching the goal is 50 percent. If your projected remaining hits are 20 percent more than your need hits, the chance of reaching the goal is 70 percent.

Two special rules, and a note:

  1. A player's chance of continuing to progress toward a goal cannot exceed .97 per year. (This rule prevents a player from figuring to have a 148 percent chance of reaching a goal.)
  2. If a player's offensive winning percentage is below .500, his chance of continuing to progress toward the goal cannot exceed .75 per season. (That is, if a below-average hitter is two years away from reaching a goal, his chance of reaching that goal cannot be shown as better than nine-sixteenths, or three-fourths times three-fourths, regardless of his age.)
  3. For 1994 and 1995, we used projected stats based on a full season of play..

Fielding Percentage (Putouts plus Assists) divided by (Putouts plus Assists plus Errors).
First Batter Efficiency This statistic tells you the batting average allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces.
GDP per GDP Situation A GDP situation exists any time there is a man on first with less than two outs. This statistic measures how often a player grounds into a double play in that situation.
Go-Ahead RBI Any time a player drives in a run which gives his team the lead, he is credited with a go-ahead RBI.
Ground/Fly Ratio (Grd/Fly) Simply a hitter's ground balls divided by his fly balls. All batted balls except line drives and bunts are included.
Hold

A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Situation (see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead.

Note: a pitcher cannot finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor can he earn a hold and a save.

Inherited Runner Any runner(s) on base when a relief pitcher enters a game are considered "inherited" by that pitcher.
Isolated Power Slugging Percentage minus Batting Average.
K/BB Ratio Strikeouts divided by Walks.
Late & Close A Late & Close situation meets the following requirements:
  1. the game is in the seventh inning or later, and
  2. the batting team is either leading by one run, tied, or has the potential tying run on base, at bat, or on deck.
Note: this situation is very similar to the characteristics of a Save Situation.
Leadoff On Base% The On-Base Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order.
No Decision (ND) The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss.
OBP+SLUG (OPS) On-base percentage plus slugging percentage.
Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP) The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense. The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game. Square the result and divide it by (1+itself).
On Base Percentage (Hits plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher) divided by (At Bats plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies).
Opponent Batting Average Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced minus Walks minus Hit Batsmen minus Sacrifice Hits minus Sacrifice Flies minus Catcher's Interference).
Outfielder Hold Percentage A statistic used to evaluate outfielders' throwing arms. "Hold Percentage" is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities. For example, if a single is lined to center field with men on first and second, and one man scores while the other stops at second, that is one extra base taken on two opportunities, a 50.0 hold percentage.
PA* The divisor for On Base Percentage: At Bats plus Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies; or Plate Appearances minus Sacrifice Hits and Times Reached Base on Defensive Interference.
PCS (Pitchers' Caught Stealing) The number of runners officially counted as Caught Stealing where the initiator of the fielding play was the pitcher, not the catcher. Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings. The most common pitcher caught stealing scenario is a 1-3-6 fielding play, where the runner is officially charged a Caught Stealing because he broke for second base. Pickoff (fielding play 1-3 being the most common) is not an official statistic.
Percentage of Pitches Taken This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging.
Percentage of Swings Put In Play This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foul-ball out, when he swings.
Pickoffs (Pk) The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher.
Pivot Percentage The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities.
PkOf Throw/Runner The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base.
Plate Appearances At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference.
Power/Speed Number

A way to look at power and speed in one number. A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number.

The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB).

Quality Start Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs.
Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less. A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more.
Range Factor The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played. The average for a Regular Player at each position in 1997:
  • Second Base: 5.00
  • Third Base: 2.67
  • Shortstop: 4.56
  • Left Field: 1.99
  • Center Field: 2.55
  • Right Field: 2.06
Relief Points (Pts) Wins plus saves minus losses
Run Support Per 9 IP The number of runs scored by a pitcher's team while he was still in the game times nine divided by his Innings Pitched.
Runs Created

A way to combine a batter's total offensive contributions into one number. The formula:

(H + BB + HBP - CS - GIDP) times (Total Bases + .26(TBB - IBB + HBP) + .52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF).

Runs/Times on Base This is calculated by dividing Runs Scored by Times on Base
Save Percentage Saves (SV) divided by Save Opportunities (OP).
Save Situation A Relief Pitcher is in a Save Situation when upon entering the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets any one of the three following conditions:
  1. he has a lead of no more than three runs and has the opportunity to pitch for at least one inning, or
  2. he enters the game, regardless of the count, with the potential tying run either on base, at bat, or on deck; or
  3. he pitches three or more innings regardless of the lead and the official scorer credits him with a save.
SBA Stolen-base attempts against a catcher
SB Success% Stolen Bases divided by (Stolen Bases plus Caught Stealing).
Secondary Average

A way to look at a player's extra bases gained, independent of Batting Average. The formula:

(Total Bases - Hits + TBB + SB) divided by At Bats.

Slow-A Otherwise known as "Regular A," these full-season minor leagues contain less-experienced professional players. The Slow-A leagues are the Midwest League and South Atlantic League (Sally).
Slugging Percentage Total Bases divided by At Bats.
Stolen Base Percentage Allowed This figure indicates how successful opposing baserunners are when attempting a stolen base. It's stolen bases divided by stolen-base attempts.
Times on Base Hits plus walks plus hit by pitch
Total Bases Hits plus Doubles plus (2 times Triples) plus (3 times Home runs).
Win-Loss Percentage or Winning Percentage Wins divided by (Wins plus Losses).
Zone Rating Simply the percentage of balls fielded by a player in his typical defensive "zone," as measured by STATS reporters.
Formulas and Definitions
PAAB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + defensive interference
PA*AB + BB + HBP + SF
Total Bases[H + 2B + (2 X 3B) + (3 X HR)]
AVGH/AB
OBP(H + BB = HBP)/(AB + BB + HBP + SF)
SLGTB/AB
Breakdown Categories
Ahead/Behind in Count For hitters, ahead in count includes 1-0, 2-0, 3-0, 2-1 and 3-1. Behind in count for hitters includes 0-1, 0-2, 1-2 and 2-2. The opposite is true for pitchers.
Day/Night Officially, night games in the National League are those that start after 5:00 pm, while night games in the AL begin after 6:00 pm. Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game. We avoid this silliness by calling all games starting after 5:00pm night games.
First Pitch Refers to the first pitch of a given at bat, and any walks listed here are intentional walks.
Grass/Turf Grass is grass. Turf is artificial turf.
Groundball/Flyball Ratio A hitter's stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively. If the ratio is less than 1.00, then he is a Flyball hitter. If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter. Anything else is classified as neutral. Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers. Anyone with less than 50 plate appearances is automatically neutral.
First Inning Pitched Describes the result of the pitcher's work until he recorded three outs.
Inning 1-6 and Inning 7+ These refer to the actual innings in which a pitcher worked.
None On/Out Refers to situation when there are no outs and the bases are empty (generally leadoff situations).
None On/Runners On Describes the status of the baserunners
Number of Pitches This section shows the results of balls put into play while his pitch count was in that range.
Pitcher/Batter Match-Ups The following conditions must be met before a player is added to the list:
  • There must be greater than 10 plate appearances between the batter and the pitcher; and
  • Batters must have a .300 average against a pitcher to be considered a "Hits Best Against" candidate, and pitchers must limit hitters to under .250 to be listed under "Pitches Best Vs."
Thus, not all hitters will have five pitchers that qualify and not all pitchers will have five batters who qualify.
Scoring Position At least one runner must be at either second or third base.
Vs. 1st Batr (Relief) Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces.
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