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Baseball Glossary
Abbreviations  



Definitions of Baseball Terms  
% Inherited Scored  A Relief Pitching statistic indicating the percentage of runners on base at the time a relief pitcher enters a game that he allows to score. 
1st Batter OBP  The OnBase Percentage allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces in a game. 
Active Career Batting Leaders  Minimum of 1,000 At Bats required for Batting Average, OnBase Percentage, Slugging Percentage, At Bats Per HR, At Bats Per GDP, At Bats Per RBI, and K/BB Ratio. One hundred (100) Stolen Base Attempts required for Stolen Base Success %. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category's minimum requirements. 
Active Career Pitching Leaders  Minimum of 750 Innings Pitched required for Earned Run Average, Opponent Batting Average, all of the Per 9 Innings categories, and Strikeout to Walk Ratio. Two hundred fifty (250) Games Started required for Complete Game Frequency. One hundred (100) decisions required for WinLoss Percentage. Any player who appeared in 1995 is eligible for inclusion provided he meets the category's minimum requirements. 
BA ScPos Allowed  Batting Average Allowed with Runners in Scoring Position. 
Baserunners per Nine Innings  These are the hits, walks and hit batsmen allowed per nine innings. 
Bases Loaded  This category shows a player's batting average in bases loaded situation. 
Batting Average  Hits divided by At Bats. 
Bequeathed Runners  Any runner(s) on base when a pitcher leaves a game are considered bequeathed to the departing hurler; the opposite of inherited runners (see below). 
Blown Saves  This is charged any time a pitcher comes into a game where a save situation is in place and he loses the lead. 
Catcher's ERA  The Earned Run Average of a club's pitchers with a particular catcher behind the plate. To figure this for a catcher, multiply the Earned Runs Allowed by the pitchers while he was catching times nine and divide that by his number of Innings Caught. 
Cheap Wins/Tough Losses/Top Game Scores 
First determine the starting pitcher's Game Score as
follows:

Cleanup Slugging%  The Slugging Percentage of a player when batting fourth in the batting order. 
Clutch  This category shows a player's batting average in the late innings of close games: the seventh inning or later with the batting team ahead by one, tied, or has the tying run on base, at bat or on deck. 
Complete Game Frequency  Complete Games divided by Games Started. 
Defensive Batting Average  A composite statistic incorporating various defensive statistics to arrive at a number akin to batting average. The formula uses standard deviations to establish a spread from best to worst. 
Earned Run Average  (Earned Runs times 9) divided by Innings Pitched. 
FastA  Otherwise known as "Advanced A," these Alevel minor leagues are the California League, Carolina League and Florida Stat League. 
Favorite Toy 
The Favorite Toy is a method that is used to estimate a player's chance of getting to a specific goal in the following example, we'll say 3,000 hits. Four things are considered:
Once you get the projected remaining hits, the chance of getting to the goal is figured by (projected remaining hits) divided by (need hits), minus .5. By this method, if your "need hits" and your "projected remaining hits" are the same, your chance of reaching the goal is 50 percent. If your projected remaining hits are 20 percent more than your need hits, the chance of reaching the goal is 70 percent. Two special rules, and a note:

Fielding Percentage  (Putouts plus Assists) divided by (Putouts plus Assists plus Errors). 
First Batter Efficiency  This statistic tells you the batting average allowed by a relief pitcher to the first batter he faces. 
GDP per GDP Situation  A GDP situation exists any time there is a man on first with less than two outs. This statistic measures how often a player grounds into a double play in that situation. 
GoAhead RBI  Any time a player drives in a run which gives his team the lead, he is credited with a goahead RBI. 
Ground/Fly Ratio (Grd/Fly)  Simply a hitter's ground balls divided by his fly balls. All batted balls except line drives and bunts are included. 
Hold 
A Hold is credited any time a relief pitcher enters a game in a Save Situation (see definition below), records at least one out, and leaves the game never having relinquished the lead. Note: a pitcher cannot finish the game and receive credit for a Hold, nor can he earn a hold and a save. 
Inherited Runner  Any runner(s) on base when a relief pitcher enters a game are considered "inherited" by that pitcher. 
Isolated Power  Slugging Percentage minus Batting Average. 
K/BB Ratio  Strikeouts divided by Walks. 
Late & Close 
A Late & Close situation meets the following requirements:

Leadoff On Base%  The OnBase Percentage of a player when batting first in the batting order. 
No Decision (ND)  The result when a starter is credited with neither a win nor a loss. 
OBP+SLUG (OPS)  Onbase percentage plus slugging percentage. 
Offensive Winning Percentage (OWP)  The Winning Percentage a team of nine Fred McGriffs (or anybody) would compile against average pitching and defense. The formula: (Runs Created per 27 outs) divided by the League average of runs scored per game. Square the result and divide it by (1+itself). 
On Base Percentage  (Hits plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher) divided by (At Bats plus Walks plus Hit by Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies). 
Opponent Batting Average  Hits Allowed divided by (Batters Faced minus Walks minus Hit Batsmen minus Sacrifice Hits minus Sacrifice Flies minus Catcher's Interference). 
Outfielder Hold Percentage  A statistic used to evaluate outfielders' throwing arms. "Hold Percentage" is computed by dividing extra bases taken (by baserunners) by the number of opportunities. For example, if a single is lined to center field with men on first and second, and one man scores while the other stops at second, that is one extra base taken on two opportunities, a 50.0 hold percentage. 
PA*  The divisor for On Base Percentage: At Bats plus Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Flies; or Plate Appearances minus Sacrifice Hits and Times Reached Base on Defensive Interference. 
PCS (Pitchers' Caught Stealing)  The number of runners officially counted as Caught Stealing where the initiator of the fielding play was the pitcher, not the catcher. Note: such plays are often referred to as pickoffs, but appear in official records as Caught Stealings. The most common pitcher caught stealing scenario is a 136 fielding play, where the runner is officially charged a Caught Stealing because he broke for second base. Pickoff (fielding play 13 being the most common) is not an official statistic. 
Percentage of Pitches Taken  This tells you how often a player lets a pitch go by without swinging. 
Percentage of Swings Put In Play  This tells you how often a player hits the ball into fair territory, or is retired on a foulball out, when he swings. 
Pickoffs (Pk)  The number of times a runner was picked off base by a pitcher. 
Pivot Percentage  The number of double plays turned by a second baseman as the pivot man, divided by the number of opportunities. 
PkOf Throw/Runner  The number of pickoff throws made by a pitcher divided by the number of runners on first base. 
Plate Appearances  At Bats plus Total Walks plus Hit By Pitcher plus Sacrifice Hits plus Sacrifice Flies plus Times Reached on Defensive Interference. 
Power/Speed Number 
A way to look at power and speed in one number. A player must score high in both areas to earn a high Power/Speed Number. The formula: (HR x SB x 2) divided by (HR + SB). 
Quality Start  Any start in which a pitcher works six or more innings while allowing three or fewer earned runs. 
Quick Hooks and Slow Hooks  A Quick Hook is the removal of a pitcher who has pitched less than 6 innings and given up 3 runs or less. A Slow Hook occurs when a pitcher pitches more than 9 innings, or allows 7 or more runs, or whose combined innings pitched and runs allowed totals 13 or more. 
Range Factor 
The number of Chances (Putouts plus Assists) times nine
divided by the number of Defensive Innings Played. The average for a Regular
Player at each position in 1997:

Relief Points (Pts)  Wins plus saves minus losses 
Run Support Per 9 IP  The number of runs scored by a pitcher's team while he was still in the game times nine divided by his Innings Pitched. 
Runs Created 
A way to combine a batter's total offensive contributions into one number. The formula: (H + BB + HBP  CS  GIDP) times (Total Bases + .26(TBB  IBB + HBP) + .52(SH + SF + SB)) divided by (AB + TBB + HBP + SH + SF). 
Runs/Times on Base  This is calculated by dividing Runs Scored by Times on Base 
Save Percentage  Saves (SV) divided by Save Opportunities (OP). 
Save Situation 
A Relief Pitcher is in a Save Situation when upon entering
the game with his club leading, he has the opportunity to be the finishing
pitcher (and is not the winning pitcher of record at the time), and meets
any one of the three following conditions:

SBA  Stolenbase attempts against a catcher 
SB Success%  Stolen Bases divided by (Stolen Bases plus Caught Stealing). 
Secondary Average 
A way to look at a player's extra bases gained, independent of Batting Average. The formula: (Total Bases  Hits + TBB + SB) divided by At Bats. 
SlowA  Otherwise known as "Regular A," these fullseason minor leagues contain lessexperienced professional players. The SlowA leagues are the Midwest League and South Atlantic League (Sally). 
Slugging Percentage  Total Bases divided by At Bats. 
Stolen Base Percentage Allowed  This figure indicates how successful opposing baserunners are when attempting a stolen base. It's stolen bases divided by stolenbase attempts. 
Times on Base  Hits plus walks plus hit by pitch 
Total Bases  Hits plus Doubles plus (2 times Triples) plus (3 times Home runs). 
WinLoss Percentage or Winning Percentage  Wins divided by (Wins plus Losses). 
Zone Rating  Simply the percentage of balls fielded by a player in his typical defensive "zone," as measured by STATS reporters. 
Formulas and Definitions  
PA  AB + BB + HBP + SF + SH + defensive interference 
PA*  AB + BB + HBP + SF 
Total Bases  [H + 2B + (2 X 3B) + (3 X HR)] 
AVG  H/AB 
OBP  (H + BB = HBP)/(AB + BB + HBP + SF) 
SLG  TB/AB 
Breakdown Categories  
Ahead/Behind in Count  For hitters, ahead in count includes 10, 20, 30, 21 and 31. Behind in count for hitters includes 01, 02, 12 and 22. The opposite is true for pitchers. 
Day/Night  Officially, night games in the National League are those that start after 5:00 pm, while night games in the AL begin after 6:00 pm. Therefore, a game at 5:30 in Yankee Stadium is a day game while one in Shea Stadium at the same time is a night game. We avoid this silliness by calling all games starting after 5:00pm night games. 
First Pitch  Refers to the first pitch of a given at bat, and any walks listed here are intentional walks. 
Grass/Turf  Grass is grass. Turf is artificial turf. 
Groundball/Flyball Ratio  A hitter's stats against pitchers that induce mostly grounders or flies, respectively. If the ratio is less than 1.00, then he is a Flyball hitter. If it is greater than 1.50, he is a Groundball hitter. Anything else is classified as neutral. Same cutoffs apply for classifying pitchers. Anyone with less than 50 plate appearances is automatically neutral. 
First Inning Pitched  Describes the result of the pitcher's work until he recorded three outs. 
Inning 16 and Inning 7+  These refer to the actual innings in which a pitcher worked. 
None On/Out  Refers to situation when there are no outs and the bases are empty (generally leadoff situations). 
None On/Runners On  Describes the status of the baserunners 
Number of Pitches  This section shows the results of balls put into play while his pitch count was in that range. 
Pitcher/Batter MatchUps 
The following conditions must be met before a player
is added to the list:

Scoring Position  At least one runner must be at either second or third base. 
Vs. 1st Batr (Relief)  Describes what happened to the first batter a reliever faces. 